HUMAYUN'S TOMB, ITS PLATFORM, GARDENS,
ENCLOSURE WALLS AND GATEWAYS (NIZAMUDDIN)-
This tomb was built by Humayun's senior widow Bega Begum, popularly known as Haji Begarn, eight years after his death, according to some, but
fourteen years according to an eighteenth century manuscript. It is the first substantial example of Mughal architecture with high arches and double dome, which occurs for the first time in India. It is also the first mature example of a garden-tomb on charbagh pattern, which culminated in the Taj Mahal at Agra. The high rubble built enclosure is entered
through two lofty double-storeyed gateways, one on the west and the other on the south. A baradari (pavilion) occupies the centre of the eastern wall and a hammam (bath-chamber) in the centre of northern wall. Its enclosure has a square garden divided initially into four large squares separated by causeways and channels, each square divided again into smaller square by pathways (charbagh) as in a typical Mughal garden. The lofty mausoleum is
located in the centre of the enclosure and rises from a podium faced with series of cells with arched openings. The central octagonal chamber containing the cenotaph is encompassed by octagonal chambers at the diagonals and arched lobbies on the sides, their openings closed with perforated screens. Each side is dominated by three emphatic arches, the central one being the highest. This plan is repeated on the second storey, and the roof is surmounted by a 42.5 m high double dome of marble with pillared kiosks (chhatris) placed around it. The structure is built with red sandstone, but white and black marble have been used to relieve the monotony, the latter largely in the borders.